This brief summary of the testing-world via Wikipedia needs insights regarding preparation resources. Also the EngageNY Common Core website is listed below for the same purpose.  The first test, however, involve answers to your questions about a particular school.  The Millennium Brooklyn High School offers an excellent set of questions (HERE).  It is a 100k pdf entitled Campus Visit Questions.  Get answers prior to the visit.

CollegeBoard
College Board
 is a private non-profit organization that runs tests and programs as a membership association of 6,000 schools, colleges, universities and other educational organizations.

SAT and SAT Subject Tests

The SAT and SAT Subject Tests (SAT II) is a fee-based standardized test for college admissions in the United States. The SAT covers writing, reading, and mathematics (800 points each) and score totals will range from 600 to 2400.  Most students take the test during their junior or senior year of high school. The SAT competes with ACT, on several another standardized college admissions test.

PSAT/NMSQT

The PSAT/NMSQT is a fee-based standardized test that provides first-hand practice for the SAT. It also functions as a qualifying test for the National Merit Scholarship Corporation‘s scholarship programs.

AP Program

The College Board’s Advanced Placement Program offers high school students the chance to participate in college-level classes for a fee to prepare them for college work. The college admissions process reviews this as a measure of students’ intellectual interest in learning. The program offers college credit for high performance on the AP exams depending on the discretion of the each school.

SSD Accommodation

The fastest, most efficient way to get approval from Services for Students with Disabilities (SSD) is through SSD Online, which is available only to educators. Families can take advantage of SSD Online by working with their school.Some students with documented disabilities are eligible for accommodations on College Board exams. Students cannot take the SAT, SAT Subject Tests, PSAT/NMSQT, PSAT 10, or AP Exams with accommodations unless without an approved request by Services for Students with Disabilities (SSD). The school handles the Forms.

ACT
The ACT college readiness assessment is a standardized test for high school achievement and college admissions in the United States. All four-year colleges and universities in the U.S. accept the ACT. Other factors of evaluation include measures such as, class rank, GPA, and extracurricular activities. The main four tests are scored individually on a scale of 1–36, and a composite score is the whole number average of the four scores.

ETS
The Education Testing Service (ETS) develops various standardized tests primarily in the United States for K–12 and higher education.  ETS administers SAT on behalf of the College Board by the ETS.  The SAT does not align with a high school curriculum. On this point, the article quotes Katherine Baird

“And a separate process that began in 1926 was complete by 1942: the much easier SAT–a test not aligned to any particular curriculum and thus better suited to a nation where high school students did not take a common curriculum–replaced the old college boards as the nation’s college entrance exam. This broke the once tight link between academic coursework and college admission, a break that remains to this day.”

Baird, Katherine (2012). Trapped in Mediocrity: Why Our Schools Aren’t World-Class and What We Can Do About It. Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers.

Evaluation and Reform

The overall testing regime and the comparative efficacy of all other educational practices may be a permanent component of education practices, evaluation, and improvement. Testing has acquired a special place in the educational landscape. It excites the passions of all who are facing the taking of a test, administering one or responsible for the design and analysis of its products.  In turn, a small industry in coaching and the production and sale of guides complete with a vast array of sample tests and support resources. The world of tests generates an extraordinary level of public interest given the claims to the use of a test is nothing more than a simple diagnostic tool.

The Whitlam Institute (a part of Sydney University) completed a study on high stakes testing that is worthy of comment (see Report 533k pdf).

A consumer rights organization, Americans for Educational Testing Reform (AETR) has criticized College Board, ACT and ETS for violating its non-profit status through excessive profits and exorbitant executive compensation.  They have established a mission to repeal their 501(c)(3) status.  It is unlikely, but the facts revealed about these outfits are worth knowing.  Non-profits pay tax, just not property tax (i.e. Columbia University’s ownership of the Chrysler Building.)

EngageNY
There is a Newsletter to help parents keep up to date with the vast, super logical structure of the Common Core. The website library (HERE) provides a filtering resource by grade and subject to examine the courses, standards and services.